1. Some secondary school education is required.
2. Completion of a one- to two-year apprenticeship program or Some high school, college or industry courses in heavy equipment operating combined with on-the-job training are required.
3. Trade certification is compulsory in Quebec and available, but voluntary, in Newfoundland and the Northwest Territories.
4. Internal company certification may be required by some employers.
5. Most recent entrants have a trade/vocational certificate, and almost 3 in 10 have a community college diploma.