1. In general, you must complete a college or university program, and you may need a licence for the province/territory where you'll work as well as membership in a professional association.
2. To be an optometrist, you need a three-year college program with mathematics/science courses and a four-year university degree in optometry, and you must pass the Canadian Standard Assessment in optometry and provincial/territorial exams.
3. To be a chiropractor, you must complete three years of university science studies, obtain a degree from an accredited chiropractic college, and pass the Canadian Chiropractic Examining Board and provincial/territorial exams.
4. To be an orthoptist, you need two years' education after high school in a science specialization, two years' hospital-based training, and supervised practical training.
5. To be an osteopathic physician, you need a university degree, a four-year osteopathic medicine program, and two to five years of post-graduate training.
6. Most recent entrants have an undergraduate university degree.